Thursday, May 13, 2010

Leg Similarities (1)
"In pterosaurs, the tibia is much longer and more slender than the femur, and the fibula is considerably reduced as in birds."

Pterosaur tibia (T) and fibula (F).
not shown.

Modern Bird Leg (diagram on the right)
Notice the tibia (T.T) and fibula (
Description: "Fore-limb and hind-limb compared. H., Humerus; R., radius; U., ulna; r., radiale; u., ulnare; C., distal carpals united to carpo-metacarpus; CC., the whole carpal region; MC.I., metacarpal of the thumb; I., phalanx of the thumb; MC.II., second metacarpus; II., second digit; MC.III., third metacarpus; III., third digit. F., femur; T.T., tibio-tarsus; Fi., fibula; Pt., proximal tarsals united to lower end of tibia; dt., distal tarsals nited to upper end of tarso-metatarsus (T.MT.); T., entire tarsal region; MT.I., first metatarsal, free; I.-IV., toes." -Thomson, 1916
Source: Thomson, J. Arthur Outlines of Zoology (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1916) 650
In fact, besides birds, distal fibular reduction also occurred independently within at least three other lineages of Ornithodira: Alvarezsauridae (Chiappe et al. 2002), Oviraptorosauria (Vickers-Rich et al. 2002), and Pterosauria (Dalla Vecchia 2003; Bonaparte et al. 2010; Fig. 7).


  1. It's great to see that you are working to collect so much relevant information on one website. I will follow with great interest.

  2. Since i discover that tibia fibula i am interested if theirs another one similar around the world in opal as well, or any bones opalised from pterosaurs.

    1. Here is a link you might find interesting: