Friday, November 21, 2014

Summary


Here is a comparison of basal pterosaur, basal paraves and coelurosaur dinosaur.
As we can see, basal paraves are like pterosaurs. Basal paraves are not like dinosaurs.
This is a work in progress.
If anyone would like to contribute to this analysis, please feel free.








Basal Pterosaur: eg. Rhamphorhynchidae
Basal Paraves: eg. Scansoriopterygidae
Coelurosaur Dinosaur: eg. Compsognathidae







Basal Basal Coelurosaur
Pterosaur Paraves Dinosaur
CHARACTERS











Back 1 Notarium: absent (0) present (1) 0 0 0
2 Hyposphene-hypantrum: absent (0) present (1) ? 0 1
Breathing 1 Respiratory air sacs: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
2 Aspiration pump: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
3 Rib lever processes: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
Chest 1 Ossified breastbone: absent (0) present (1)  1 1 x 0
2 Symmetric furcula: absent (0) present (1) 1       x 0
3 Interclavicle: absent (0) present (1) 1 ? 0
Leg 1 Thigh bone: horizontal (0) not horizontal (1) 0 0 1
2 Splayed hindlimbs: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
3 4th trochanter on femur: present (0) much reduced (1) 1 1 x 0
Foot 1 Hyperextended second toe: absent (0) present (1) 0
0
0
2 Hinge-like ankle joint: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 1
3 Trochleae of metatarsals I–IV: align (0) not align (1) 0 0 x 1
Pelvis 1 Pubic bone: pointing to back (0) to front (1) down (2) 1 1 1
2 Pubic bones: not fused (0) fused (1) 0 ? ?
3 Acetabulum: not perforated (0) partial (1) full (2) 0 x 1 x 2
4 Pelvic bones: not fused (0) fused (1) 1 ? ?
5 Pre-pubic bone: absent (0) present (1) 1 ** **
6 Supra-acetabular shelf: not present (0) present (1) 0 0 x 1
7 Antitrochanter: absent (0) present (1) 0 0 x 1
8 Sacrum: present (0) not present (1)  0 0 0
Tail 1 Caudal vertebrae: less than 15 (0) greater than 15 (1) 1 1 1
2 Caudal rods: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
3 Muscle mass of M. caudofemoralis longus: small (0) large (1) 0 0 x 1
Skull 1 Beak like jaw: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
2 Teeth: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 1
3 Crest: absent (0) present (1)  1 1 1
4 Neck attaches to skull; from rear (0) from below (1) 0 0 0
5 Serrated teeth: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 1
6 Semicircular canals:  expanded (0) not expanded (1) 0 ? ?
7 Intramandibular joint: absent (0) present (1) 0 0 x 1
8 Mandibular fenestra: absent (0) present (1) * * *
Procumbent teeth: absent (0) present (1)                                   1              ?

Shoulder
1 Strap-like scapula: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 ?
2 Scapula oriented to backbone: subparallel  (0) parallel (1) 1 1 x 0
3 Glenoid fossa: elevated (0) not elevated (1) 0 0 x 1
4 Scapula and coracoid: separate (0) fused (1) 1 1 ?
Feather 1 Stage 2 feathers: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
2 Pennaceous feathers: absent (0) present (1) 0 x 1 x 0
Wing 1 Propatagium: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
2 Patagium: absent (0) present (1)  1 1 x 0
3 Wing membrane: absent (0) present (1) 1 ? 0
4 Elongated outer finger: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
5 Number of fingers: 2 fingers (2) 3 fingers (3) 4  fingers (4) 4 x 3 2/3
6 Pteroid bone: absent (0) present (1) 1 x 0 0
7 Capable of flapping flight: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
8 Long robust arms: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 x 0
9 Deltopectoral crest: less than 30% (0) more than 30% (1) 0 0 x 1
Wrist 1 Semilunate carpal: absent (0) present (1) 1
1 x 0
2 Proximal carpals: not fused (0) fused (1) 1 ? ?
3 Distal carpals: not fused (0) fused (1) 1
?
4 Carpometacarpus: absent (0) present(1) 0
0
0
5 Angle of abduction:  < 25% (0) > 25% (1) ? ? 0

Arm            
1    Ulna: bowed (0) not bowed (1)                                           
*             
* *
General 1 Warm blooded: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 0
2 Neural flight control system: absent (0) present (1) 1 ? 0
3 Pneumatic bones: absent (0) present (1) 1 1 ?
* = varies within group
** = see link
x = different

Fibula:    Reduced in birds and pterosaurs, not reduced in dinosaurs
Toes:      Pterosaurs 5 toes, basal paravians 4 toes, dinosaur 3 toes
http://www.itsdinosaurs.com/6-compsognathus.html
Compsognathus had two long and thin legs and feet with three toes each.
Antorbital fenestra: Pterosaur present, dinosaur present, basal paraves present?
Metacarpals?








21 comments:

  1. 8. Distal carpal 3, fusion to distal carpal 2: absent (0) or occurs late in ontogeny (1) or occurs early in ontogeny (2)
    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 2
    Dinosaur: 0/1

    9. Distal carpal 4: present (0) or absent (1)
    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 0
    Dinosaur: 1

    11. ‘Semilunate’ carpal (distal carpal element with a transversely trochlear proximal articular facet), proximal margin of ventral surface:straight (0) or moderately convex (1) or strongly convex (2).
    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 2
    Dinosaur: 1

    12. ‘Semilunate’ carpal, proximal margin of dorsal surface: straight (0) or moderately convex (1) or strongly convex (2).
    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: 0

    16. Articular facet on proximal surface of metacarpus: medial, facet absent on lateral portion of proximal surface of metacarpus (0) or central, facet present across entire proximal surface of metacarpus (1) or lateral, facet absent on medial portion of proximal surface of metacarpus (2) or extremely lateral, facet absent on medial portion of proximal surface of metacarpus and extends onto poximolateral surface of metacarpus (3).
    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: 0

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2016/04/the-big-gap.html

      Delete
  2. Antorbital fossa: absent (0) present (1)
    Pterosaur: 1
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: ?

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2014/01/review-of-similarities.html
    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2016/04/the-big-gap.html

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antorbital_fenestra
      In theropod dinosaurs, the antorbital fenestra is the largest opening in the skull. Systematically, the presence of the antorbital fenestra is considered a synapomorphy that unites tetanuran theropods as a clade.

      Delete
    2. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6352
      Character 27: Pronounced, round accessory antorbital
      fenestra (modified from TWiG) ORDERED
      0: absent
      1: present, fenestra occupies less than half of the
      depressed area between the anterior margins of the
      antorbital fossa and antorbital fenestra
      2: present, fenestra large and takes up most of the
      space between the anterior margins of the antorbital
      fenestra and fossa
      A small fenestra, variously termed the accessory
      antorbital fenestra or maxillary fenestra, penetrates
      the medial wall of the antorbital fossa anterior to the
      antorbital fenestra in a variety of coelurosaurs and
      other theropods. This character was modified from
      the TWiG character following Currie and Varricchio
      (2004: char. 22).

      Delete
  3. "a relatively large proximodorsal process of the ischium"

    http://www.ivpp.ac.cn/qt/papers/201403/P020140314389417822583.pdf
    165. Posterior edge of ischium without (0) or with prominent proximodorsal prong (1).

    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2016/04/the-big-gap.html

      Delete
  4. a relatively long pre-acetabular process of the ilium

    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://www.ivpp.ac.cn/qt/papers/201403/P020140314389417822583.pdf

      Delete
    2. http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2016/04/the-big-gap.html

      Delete
  5. http://www.ivpp.ac.cn/qt/papers/201403/P020140314389417822583.pdf

    "fusion of the proximal part of the metatarsus 11,37,41"

    196. Distal tarsals separate, not fused to metatarsals (0) or form metatarsal cap with intercondylar prominence that fuses to metatarsal early in postnatal ontogeny (1).

    Pterosaur: ?
    Paraves: 1
    Dinosaur: ?

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2016/04/the-big-gap.html

    ReplyDelete
  6. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.1052090107/abstract;jsessionid=5641BEB3E9FBF3BDE5A42F67DE5C9286.f01t01
    An analysis of hind limb skeletal elements of non-avian theropods and ground-dwelling birds was performed to reveal patterns of change in shape and proportion with size. When femora of equal length are compared, birds exhibit a significantly larger midshaft diameter than non-avian theropods. As total limb length increases, avian femora become relatively shorter (negative allometry), while those of non-avian theropods become relatively longer (positive allometry). Avian femoral/tibiotarsal ratios are all below 0.8 and decrease with limb size, whereas ratios of non-avian theropods are well above 0.8 and tend to increase with limb size. In addition, avian femora exhibit a unique diameter/length relationship not seen in other theropod hind limb bones.

    Several studies have shown that within the avian limb, the short, robust femur resists bending to a far greater degree than the relatively longer, slimmer tibiotarsus. This is to be expected, as analyses of running birds show that the femur is oriented relatively perpendicular to the ground reaction force throughout the stride, which would subject it to high bending moments. When compared to birds, non-avian theropods have relatively long, slender femora that do not seem to be built to withstand the forces associated with such an orientation. Reconstructing all non-avian theropods in avian-like poses (subhorizontal femur, knee well flexed) with avian locomotor kinematics (relatively little hip extension at most speeds) ignores major differences in scaling between these groups of organisms.

    ReplyDelete
  7. http://www.ivpp.cas.cn/qt/papers/201403/P020140314389417822583.pdf
    143. Distal articular surface of ulna flat (0) or convex, semilunate surface (1).

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6352
      Character 143: Distal articular surface of ulna (dorsal condyle and dorsal trochlea in birds)
      0: flat
      1: convex, semilunate surface (1).
      MODIFIED. Wording changed slightly following
      CEA 06.

      Delete
  8. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6352
    Character 310: (CEA 06 50) Anterior external mandibular fenestra
    0: absent
    1: present

    ReplyDelete
  9. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6352
    Character 320: (CEA 06 61) Notarium
    0: absent
    1: present

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Character 460: [NEW] Filamentous integumentary
      structures (stage 1 feathers)
      0: absent
      1: present
      Character 461: [NEW] Vaned feathers (stage 4 feathers)
      0: absent
      1: present

      Delete
  10. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6352
    Character 67: Mandible
    0: without coronoid prominence
    1: with coronoid prominence

    Character 72: External mandibular fenestra shape
    0: oval
    1: subdivided by a spinous rostral process of the
    surangular
    This is a derived oviraptorid synapomorphy present
    in Conchoraptor gracilis, Oviraptor philoceratops,
    Citipati osmolskae, and Ingenia yanshani.


    Character 73: Internal mandibular fenestra (Currie,
    1995)
    0: small and slitlike
    1: large and rounded

    Character 88: Teeth
    0: constricted between root and crown
    1: root and crown confluent

    ReplyDelete
  11. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4085810
    Avian dentitions also pose a problem for the dinosaur hypothesis. While theropod teeth are serrated and have straight roots, avian teeth, like those of crocodilians, are unserrated, with constricted bases and expanded roots.

    http://www.pterosaur.co.uk/identify/teeth/teeth.htm
    Most pterosaur teeth are relatively smooth with an oval section and no ridges. They tend to taper evenly to the tip and can be straight or gently curved along their length.

    ReplyDelete
  12. http://www.palaeodiversity.org/pdf/03/Palaeodiversity_Bd3_Nesbitt.pdf
    Pterosauria, a successful clade of extinct flying vertebrates, possesses a radical body plan that offers few clues about their origin and closest relatives. Whereas most researchers hypothesize an origin within Archosauria as the sister-group to Dinosauromorpha, others favor a position among non-archosauriform archosauromorphs. Here we present evidence that supports a placement within Archosauriformes: the presence of an external mandibular fenestra in two basal pterosaur taxa, Dimorphodon macronyx and a specimen referred to Eudimorphodon cf. ranzii (= ‘Seefeld Eudimorphodon’; BSP 1994 I 51). Furthermore, the arrangement of the mandibular bones surrounding the mandibular fenestra and the presence of a posterior process of the dentary that laterally overlaps the angular in the mandible of Dimorphodon and BSP 1994 I 51 are identical to those of Erythrosuchus, Euparkeria, and Archosauria.
    When mapped on a cladogram, presence or absence of an external mandibular fenestra in basal pterosaurs possibly indicates that the feature is primitive for Pterosauria but later lost. The presence of an external mandibular fenestra, along with morphological evidence elsewhere in the body of pterosaurs (serrated teeth, antorbital fossa present, fourth trochanter on the femur present), supports a placement of Pterosauria within Archosauriformes and is consistent with a position within Archosauria.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Breathing and air sacs

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2010/05/another-thing-to-watch-for.html

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2013/12/respiratory-cycle-of-bird_16.html

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2011/11/breathing-pterosaurs-are-like-birds.html

    http://pterosaurnet.blogspot.ca/2010/05/uncinate-processes.html


    ReplyDelete